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14 <tr>
15 <td><font size="6"><strong>See Also</strong></font></td>
16 <td align="right"><a href="limitations.html"><img
17 src="../image/previous.gif" alt="Previous" border="0"
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24 <hr size="1">
25
26 <h2>Bibliographical References</h2>
27
28 <table border="0" cellpadding="5">
29 <tr>
30 <td valign="top"><img src="../image/book/empty.gif"
31 align="top" border="1" width="80" height="100"></td>
32 <td valign="top"><a
33 href="http://minix1.bio.umass.edu/pub/minix.2.0/2.0.4/wwwman/man1/flexdoc.1.html"><em><strong>flexdoc.1</strong></em></a>,
34 by Vern Paxson. 1995.<br>
35 This is the definitive reference on <em>flex</em>.
36 Written by the author of <em>flex</em>, it is part of the
37 <em>flex</em> distribution. The manual includes both
38 tutorial and reference sections and is of great help for
39 novice and experienced programmers. The documentation of <em>gelex</em>
40 is based on this manual.</td>
41 </tr>
42 <tr>
43 <td valign="top"><img src="../image/book/empty.gif"
44 align="top" border="1" width="80" height="100"></td>
45 <td valign="top"><a
46 href="http://www.combo.org/lex_yacc_page/lex.html"><em><strong>Lex
47 - Lexical Analyzer Generator</strong></em></a>, by <a
48 href="http://www.purl.net/NET/lesk">M. E. Lesk</a>, E.
49 Schmidt. Bell Laboratories, 1975.<br>
50 This paper was certainly the first reference manual
51 describing <em>lex</em>, a tool which has been initially
52 designed and implemented under Unix by the authors to
53 simplify interfacing with <em>yacc</em>. It's interesting
54 to see that the specification of <em>lex</em> didn't
55 change that much over the years.</td>
56 </tr>
57 <tr>
58 <td valign="top"><img src="../image/book/flex.gif"
59 align="top" border="1" width="80" height="100"></td>
60 <td valign="top"><a href="http://gnu.bestwebcover.com/doc/book11.html"><em><strong>Flex, The Lexical Scanner
61 Generator</strong></em></a>, by G. T. Nicol. <a
62 href="http://www.fsf.org/">Free Software Foundation</a>,
63 1993. ISBN 1-882114-21-3.<br>
64 The <em>flex</em> manual (edition 1.03) provided by the
65 Free Software Foundation covers <em>flex</em> 2.3.7.
66 Although out of date, this is a good reference manual for
67 programmers familiar with the common problems in lexical
68 analysis and compiler design.</td>
69 </tr>
70 <tr>
71 <td valign="top"><img src="../image/book/lex_yacc.gif"
72 align="top" border="1" width="80" height="100"></td>
73 <td valign="top"><a
74 href="http://www.ora.com/catalog/lex/"><em><strong>Lex
75 &amp; Yacc</strong></em></a>, second edition, by J. R.
76 Levin, T. Mason, D. Brown. <a href="http://www.ora.com/">O'Reilly
77 &amp; Associates, Inc.</a>, 1992. ISBN 1-56592-000-7.<br>
78 This book is both a reference manual for <em>lex</em> and
79 <em>yacc</em> with a thorough description of the various
80 flavors of these tools, and a tutorial with well-written
81 examples explained in details.</td>
82 </tr>
83 <tr>
84 <td valign="top"><img src="../image/book/compilers.gif"
85 align="top" border="1" width="80" height="100"></td>
86 <td valign="top"><a
87 href="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0201100886/104-0124030-2507123"><em><strong>Compilers:
88 Principles, Techniques, and Tools</strong></em></a>, by
89 A. V. Aho, R. Sethi, J. D. Ullman. <a
90 href="http://www.aw.com/cseng">Addison-Wesley</a>, 1986.
91 ISBN 0-201-10088-6.<br>
92 The classic compiler text, also known as the <em>Dragon
93 Book</em> because of its cover. It includes detailed
94 discussions of the theory behind lexical analysis along
95 with sketches of possible implementations (see chapter 3,
96 page 83).</td>
97 </tr>
98 <tr>
99 <td valign="top"><img
100 src="../image/book/compiler_design.gif" align="top"
101 border="1" width="80" height="100"></td>
102 <td valign="top"><a
103 href="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0201422905/104-0124030-2507123l/104-9545289-7922301"><em><strong>Compiler
104 Design</strong></em></a>, by R. Wilhelm, D. Maurer. <a
105 href="http://www.aw.com/cseng">Addison-Wesley</a>, 1995.
106 ISBN 0-201-42290-5.<br>
107 This book provides a comprehensive, modern approach to
108 the design and construction of compilers, with a chapter
109 devoted to lexical analysis (see chapter 7, page 235).</td>
110 </tr>
111 <tr>
112 <td valign="top"><img src="../image/book/regex.gif"
113 border="1" width="80" height="100"></td>
114 <td valign="top"><a
115 href="http://www.ora.com/catalog/regex/"><em><strong>Mastering
116 Regular Expressions</strong></em></a>, by J. E.F. Friedl.
117 <a href="http://www.ora.com/">O'Reilly &amp; Associates,
118 Inc.</a>, 1997. ISBN 1-56592-257-3.<br>
119 Everything you wanted to know about regular expressions
120 can be found in this excellent book. There can be certain
121 subtle but valuable ways to think when using regular
122 expressions. In the book the author leads you through the
123 steps of knowing exactly how to craft a regular
124 expression to get the job done.</td>
125 </tr>
126 </table>
127
128 <h2>Related Resources</h2>
129
130 <p>The <a href="http://www.eiffelzone.com">Eiffel Zone</a> <a
131 href="http://www.eiffelzone.com/esd/index.html">Software Directory</a> contains
132 many linls to Eiffel libraries sorted by category. Also of
133 interest is the <a
134 href="http://www.cetus-links.org/oo_eiffel.html">Cetus Links
135 Eiffel</a> page and its <a
136 href="http://www.cetus-links.org/oo_eiffel_libraries.html">library
137 section</a> which provides links to numerous open-source and
138 commercial Eiffel libraries.</p>
139
140 <p><a href="http://www.object-tools.com">Object Tools</a>
141 developed Eiffel wrappers and support for Eiffel/S that allow <em>Flex</em>
142 and <em>Bison</em> to be used for the generation of lexical
143 analyzers and parsers using Eiffel under MS-DOS. This package is
144 distributed under the GNU <a
145 href="http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/gpl.html">GPL license</a> and
146 includes the DOS versions of <em>Flex</em> and <em>Bison</em>.
147 This package can be <a
148 href="http://www.eiffelzone.com/esd/flex-ot/index.html">downloaded</a>
149 from the <a href="http://www.eiffelzone.com">Eiffel Zone</a> <a
150 href="http://www.eiffelzone.com/esd/index.html">Software Directory</a> page.</p>
151
152 <p>Pirmin Kalberer ported the above package to ISE Eiffel 3.
153 The <em>flex</em> distribution can be downloaded from Pirmin's <a
154 href="http://www.eiffelzone.com/esd/flex-pk/index.html">Flex for
155 Eiffel</a> page.</p>
156
157 <p><a href="http://www.eiffel.com">ISE</a>'s <a
158 href="http://www.eiffel.com/products/lex.html"><em>EiffelLex</em></a>
159 library provides a set of object-oriented mechanisms for lexical
160 analysis, based on several kinds of finite automata,
161 deterministic and non-deterministic. However the scanner
162 specification is done in Eiffel, which is quite cumbersome, and
163 the automata are built at run-time making the execution rather
164 slow.</p>
165
166 <p><em>Epg: an Eiffel Parser Generator</em> is a wrapper and
167 supporting classes to use standard Unix tools to generate Eiffel
168 parsers. <em>Epg</em> is a freeware developed by Christoph
169 Zenger. This package requires <em>lex</em>/<em>yacc</em>/<em>sed</em>
170 etc. and works with Eiffel/S 1.3. More information about <a
171 href="http://www.eiffelzone.com/esd/epg/index.html"><em>epg</em></a>,
172 including downloading instructions, can be found at the <a
173 href="http://www.eiffelzone.com">Eiffel Zone</a> <a
174 href="http://www.eiffelzone.com/esd/index.html">Software Directory</a> page.</p>
175
176 <p>Bruce Wielinga wrote an Eiffel wraper around the <a
177 href="ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu">GNU rx library</a>. This
178 allows one to do regular expression matching in <a
179 href="http://SmartEiffel.loria.fr/">SmartEiffel</a>. This package
180 can be <a href="http://www.eiffelzone.com/esd/rx/index.html">downloaded</a>
181 from the <a href="http://www.eiffelzone.com">Eiffel Zone</a> <a
182 href="http://www.eiffelzone.com/esd/index.html">Software Directory</a>.</p>
183
184 <h2>Acknowledgements</h2>
185
186 <p><em>Gelex</em> has been written in Eiffel after
187 reverse-engineering the <em>flex</em> utility (version 2.5.2)
188 contributed to Berkeley by Vern Paxson. The C source code of the <em>flex</em>
189 utility can be downloaded from <a
190 href="ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu"><tt>ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu</tt></a>.</p>
191
192 <hr size="1">
193
194 <table border="0" width="100%">
195 <tr>
196 <td><address>
197 <font size="2"><b>Copyright 1999-2005</b></font><font
198 size="1"><b>, </b></font><font size="2"><strong>Eric
199 Bezault</strong></font><strong> </strong><font
200 size="2"><br>
201 <strong>mailto:</strong></font><a
202 href="mailto:ericb@gobosoft.com"><font size="2">ericb@gobosoft.com</font></a><font
203 size="2"><br>
204 <strong>http:</strong></font><a
205 href="http://www.gobosoft.com"><font size="2">//www.gobosoft.com</font></a><font
206 size="2"><br>
207 <strong>Last Updated:</strong> 23 February 2005</font><br>
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